Hematology Hematology is the branch of medicine that studies blood and its diseases (or hemopathies). It studies more particularly the blood cells whose origin is hematopoietic (synthesis of these cells in the bone marrow) and which have a role for oxygenation, immunity and coagulation, and also studies certain plasma molecules which are the factors coagulation. Hematology is generally divided into two sub-areas: • a clinical aspect with clinical hematology, consisting of direct care for patients, from clinical diagnosis to therapeutic care. • a biological / pathological side with biological hematology (or hematopathology) which deals with the diagnosis of pathologies on blood / bone marrow samples.
hemostasis Immense progress has been made in understanding hemorrhagic diseases, which today most often allow early, precise diagnosis and better patient management. The high frequency of venous thrombosis, which can be life-threatening, underlines the importance of the assessment of risk factors for thrombosis and the associated clinical and biological etiological investigation. Activity and techniques used: The laboratory offers a full range of specialized laboratory exams in this area for: the diagnosis of hemorrhagic diseases (assays of coagulation factors, etc.) and the study of fibrinolysis. the diagnosis of constitutional and acquired thrombophilia (dosages of physiological inhibitors). monitoring heparin treatments, fondaparinux (Arixtra®), danaparoïde (Orgaran®), and new oral anticoagulants, aid in the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type 2 (HIT). We use chronometric, chromogenic, immunological and molecular biology techniques for this. IRN (QUICK) PTT fibrinogen D-dimer Crase blood. complete platelets Anti-thrombin III Protein S Protein C (coag.) Anti-phospholipid results homocysteine Anti-coag. Circulatory. Mut. fact. 5 (Leiden) Factor 2 mutation Anti-cardiolipin ac Anti-β2 glycoprotein
immunohaematology Hematology mainly concerns the diagnosis of malignant hemopathies and that of hemoglobinopathies, essential for optimal care of patients. Immuno-hematology occupies a fundamental place in the prevention of transfusion accidents and feto-maternal incompatibilities in pregnant women. Activity and techniques used: Different biological parameters constitute the field of activity of the specialized hematology department: Lymphocyte cytology and immunophenotyping for the diagnosis of malignant hemopathies. Diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies, including identification of hemoglobin variants. Screening and identification of anti-erythrocyte antibodies, identification of rare erythrocyte phenotypes; detection of erythrocyte and platelet feto-maternal alloimmunizations and follow-up of their evolution, diagnosis and monitoring of autoimmune hemolytic anemias (direct antiglobulin test). CD4-CD8 lymphocyte typing for monitoring HIV-positive patients The main techniques used are flow cytometry for lymphocyte phenotyping, and indirect microplate antiglobulin test for immunohematology. For the diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies, capillary electrophoresis, as well as HPLC and gel electrophoresis at acid pH are used. Group, Rh & phenotype Rhesuman Irregular antibodies Cold agglutinins
oxidative Many factors and many situations result in an overproduction of free radicals. Some are classic such as smoking or excessive alcohol consumption, prolonged exposure to the sun or artificial UV rays but also the intensive practice of sport. Also involved are acute or chronic illnesses, particularly those causing "inflammation". Other situations, experienced on a daily basis, can also be at the origin of the production of free radicals: stress, fatigue, overwork ... etc ... "psycho-social stress" in people who are otherwise apparently healthy. All of these situations that we all know will cause an imbalance in the balance between the production of free radicals and antioxidant defenses, There are two ways to fight against Oxidative Stress: decrease or even suppress the production of free radicals or increase our antioxidant defenses. And it is precisely when the balance between pro and antioxidant factors is upset that it is time to intervene. Oxidative Stress is not clearly an indicator of this or that disease, but is, on the other hand, an important indicator of an individual's real state of health. Evaluating the Oxidative Stress by a blood test makes it possible to highlight a "state of rupture" of health which can be expressed in a totally different way from one person to another with a strong predictive value of developing an evolutionary pathology . "It must be understood that the treatment of Oxidative Stress in a patient with an acute or chronic disease must be integrated into a global management of his pathology". A balance of Oxidative Stress will allow, in view of the results and depending on the imbalances observed, to establish supplementation with correctly dosed food supplements. The evaluation of the degree of Oxidative Stress of an individual goes through the realization of a blood balance with targeted dosage of some biomarkers.
Biochemistry is the study of the chemical reactions which take place within living beings, and in particular in cells. The complexity of biological chemical processes is controlled through cell signaling and energy transfers during metabolism. For half a century, biochemistry has managed to account for a considerable number of biological processes, to the point that practically all fields of biology, from botany to medicine, are today engaged in research. biochemical, even biotechnological. The main objective of biochemistry today is to understand, by integrating the data obtained at the molecular level, how biomolecules and their interactions generate the structures and biological processes observed in cells, paving the way for the understanding of organisms as a whole. In this context, supramolecular chemistry is interested in molecular complexes such as organelles, which constitute a level of organization of living matter intermediate between molecules and cells. Biochemistry is particularly interested in the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids, which constitute cellular structures and perform many biological functions. Cell chemistry also depends on smaller molecules and ions. These can be inorganic, for example the hydronium ion H3O +, hydroxyl OH– or metal cations, or organic, like the amino acids which constitute proteins. These chemical species are essentially made up of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen; lipids and nucleic acids also contain phosphorus, The results of biochemistry find applications in many fields such as medicine, dietetics or agriculture; in medicine, biochemists study the causes of diseases and the treatments likely to cure them; nutritionists use the results of biochemistry to design healthy diets while understanding biochemical mechanisms helps understand the effects of nutritional deficiencies; applied to agronomy, biochemistry makes it possible to design fertilizers adapted to different types of crops and soils as well as to optimize crop yields, storage of crops and elimination of parasites. Carl Neuberg is credited with introducing this term in 1903 from Greek roots, but this term has been circulating in Europe since the late 19th century. Along with molecular biology and cell biology, biochemistry is one of the disciplines that study the functioning of living things. It covers several branches itself, such as bioenergetics, which studies the transfers of chemical energy within living beings, enzymology, which studies the enzymes and the reactions which they catalyze, or even structural biology, which is interested in the relationships between the biochemical functions of molecules and their three-dimensional structure.
Endocrinology is the science of medicine that studies hormones. Its name means: the study of internal secretion. She studies many physiological phenomena, because hormones are involved in many functions in many organisms including Man: nutrition: hormones regulating blood sugar such as insulin and glucagon, leptin which regulates fat reserves in the body, ghrelin which stimulates appetite, and PYY-36 which gives a feeling of satiety during many hours. growth, with the different growth hormones. reproduction: puberty, but also the menstrual cycles of women, pregnancy and lactation (making milk). regulating body temperature, with thyroid hormones. regulating circadian cycles with melatonin. In some other animal species, hormones have other effects as well: sex change in some fish, behavior change in bees, moulting in some insects (regulated by ecdysone)… Hormones are a way for the body to communicate information within it, mainly thanks to molecules transported by the blood.
Serology is the study of sera and variations or modifications of their properties during illnesses. Since the progress of biology, it consists mainly, via what is commonly called a blood test, to highlight signs of the presence of pathogens in the body, by means of various tests. It allows a quantitative and qualitative approach, with for example the assay of specific antibodies. It is therefore linked to the study of immunoglobulins in blood serum or other body fluids. It is used as a diagnostic tool, as a screening tool (AIDS, Hepatitis, etc.), as an epidemiological and increasingly eco-epidemiological tool. Due to cross-reactions, the low-noise development of certain pathogens, or the time required for the detectable appearance of antibodies, this is not a 100% reliable diagnostic tool. A "positive serology" for a microorganism X (or seropositivity) simply means that the organism has, in the more or less recent past, combated the microorganism X. This microorganism may no longer be present, but if several successive serologies show an increase in the level of antibodies, it is that there is infection (or reinfection) in progress.
serology Serology is the study of sera and variations or modifications of their properties during illnesses. Since the progress of biology, it consists mainly, via what is commonly called a blood test, to highlight signs of the presence of pathogens in the body, by means of various tests. It allows a quantitative and qualitative approach, with for example the assay of specific antibodies. It is therefore linked to the study of immunoglobulins in blood serum or other body fluids. It is used as a diagnostic tool, as a screening tool (AIDS, Hepatitis, etc.), as an epidemiological and increasingly eco-epidemiological tool. Due to cross-reactions, the low-noise development of certain pathogens, or the time required for the detectable appearance of antibodies, this is not a 100% reliable diagnostic tool. A "positive serology" for a microorganism X (or seropositivity) simply means that the organism has, in the more or less recent past, combated the microorganism X. This microorganism may no longer be present, but if several successive serologies show an increase in the level of antibodies, it is that there is infection (or reinfection) in progress.
Bacteriology is a scientific discipline dedicated to the study of bacteria. The purpose of bacteriology is to identify bacteria, to classify them and to study their interaction, that is to say the action of one on the other with the external environment, in humans and in humans. 'animal. The purpose of medical bacteriology is to highlight the existence which may exist between the different strains of bacteria, sources of infection in humans. Bacteriological examination requires a sample of substance from the body. It can be blood, pus, sputum, excrement, urine, various fluid effusions etc. These samples are taken from the patient in one way or another (most often a blood test, biopsy, etc.). Samples sometimes require the use of medical equipment such as a fibroscope. The sample thus obtained is first examined using a microscope and then colored, which makes it possible to identify the cells as white blood cells. Microscopic examination also allows the detection of certain bacteria. A specific staining, which is called Gram, gives the possibility of distinguishing between each bacterium called Gram positive or Gram negative.
Parasitology Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts and their mutual interactions. As a biological discipline, the challenges of parasitology are not so much determined by the organism or the environment in question, but by the lifestyles and sustainable interactions between parasites and their hosts (if they were not sustainable , the host or parasite would disappear). [not clear] It is therefore at the crossroads of other disciplines such as cell biology, bioinformatics, molecular biology, immunology, genetics and ecology, landscape epidemiology. Parasitism is the most common way of life on this planet, involving representatives of the main taxa, from the simplest single-celled organisms to complex vertebrates. Each species is potentially the victim of several parasites and many parasites can themselves be parasitized. Consequently, the number of parasitic species greatly exceeds the number of “autonomous” species. To understand the parasitic fact, we must go back in the course of evolution. it is supposed that at first, the natural mineral environments were suitable for a life evolving towards plants and animals. The multiplication of species rapidly generating competition for space and vital resources, the solutions of which were continuous adaptation and coevolution. Even the most peculiar and unexpected natural environments seem to have been quickly colonized by life. Now this appearance and this multiplication of species has itself generated a new and vast world of particularly rich environments: living biological environments (outside or inside of individuals). It is therefore not surprising that among almost all zoological and botanical groups, a large number of species specialize secondarily to live at the expense of these new living environments (certain parasitic relationships can moreover evolve towards mutualism or symbiosis). It is therefore a secondary evolution, in fact almost a "progress", which has created alongside the mass of predators who necessarily kill their prey to feed on it, the world of parasites, often living without destroying them at the expense of other living things. Bacteriological examination requires a sample of substance from the body. It can be blood, pus, sputum, excrement, urine, various fluid effusions etc. These samples are taken from the patient in one way or another (most often a blood test, biopsy, etc.). Samples sometimes require the use of medical equipment such as a fibroscope. The sample thus obtained is first examined using a microscope and then colored, which makes it possible to identify the cells as white blood cells. Microscopic examination also allows the detection of certain bacteria. A specific staining, which is called Gram, gives the possibility of distinguishing between each bacterium called Gram positive or Gram negative.
Mycology Mycology is a branch of medicine (human or veterinary), more specifically medical biology, which consists of isolating and characterizing yeasts, filamentous fungi (or dimorphic fungi) in various liquids or tissues of human origin for the purpose to characterize the mycological origin or not of a pathology. Main fungi in human pathology The main types of fungi responsible for fungal infections are: Candida yeasts is a genus of yeasts (the most important of which is Candida albicans) which is widespread throughout Asia and normally forms a commensal perfectly tolerated by healthy humans in the mouth, on the skin, in the digestive system and in vaginal flora. It becomes pathological and sometimes causes yeast infections (candidiasis or candidiasis) in humans and other animals when the body is weakened. Candida albicans In the medical laboratory, culture in a Petri dish of Candidadonne colonies that are large, round, white or cream in color (albicans means "whitish"). It is a single-celled fungus found in the digestive tract and in the mouth of most humans. However, it does not cause any pathology in individuals with a normal immune system. It can be found in several forms: yeast, pseudohypha or hypha. Candida species can cause fairly mild infections, such as oral thrush in children or vulvovaginal candidiasis in women. In patients with weakened immune systems, such as patients receiving cancer chemotherapy or patients with AIDS, Candida can cause more serious infections, such as dessepticemia or digestive candidiasis. In the vast majority of pathological cases, Candida albicans is the cause, but are also important: Candida pseudotropicalis, cosmopolitan like the first, Candida tropicalis more frequently the cause of candidiasis in the warm and humid intertropical zones, Candida parapsilosis and Candida guillermondii. Pucciniomycotina constitute a sub-branch of mushrooms (Fungi) basidiomycetes. Cryptococcus neoformans also called Cryptococcus gattii, is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus that can live on both plants and animals. This species, which is also known by its teleomorphic name, Filobasidiella neoformans, belongs to the large class of organisms called Basidiomycota. C. neoformans usually grows as a yeast (single-celled). Under certain conditions, both in nature and in the laboratory, C. neoformans can grow like a filamentous fungus. If it develops like a yeast, C. neoformans has a large capsule composed mainly of polysaccharides. Under the microscope, coloring with Indian ink is used to easily visualize the capsule. The pigment particles in the ink do not penetrate the capsule that surrounds the spherical yeast cell, Malassezia furfur (Malassezia with reference to Louis-Charles Malassez and from the Latin furfur, "son"), sometimes also called Pityrosporum ovale, is a yeast1 belonging to the group of Fungi imperfecti and forming part of the commensal flora of humans, present in almost 100 % Population. It is established that this fungus is a weakly pathogenic agent for humans. This species as well as others of the genus Malassezia are also present as commensals or as parasites in other mammals (for example dogs). It is also established that Malassezia furfur, a lipophilic yeast, is responsible in approximately 3% of the population of dermatoses such as seborrheic dermatitis in adults.